A family is hosting a friend for dinner. The teenager in the family watches as the friend reaches for a cookie and says, “You’d better not eat that or you’ll gain more weight.”
A man is talking to a group of people at work about his recent vacation. A co-worker stands at the outer edge of the conversation group and interrupts the story, saying (a little too loudly) – “Hey, did any of you know that the last drive-in movie theatre in the state has decided to shut down for good?”
The teenager and co-worker in these examples might be easily dismissed as rude or weird or tactless or stupid. Truth is, they’re perfectly normal for individuals with High Functioning Autism (HFA). Individuals with HFA possess many of the technical skills of conversation. They can say words clearly and use grammar correctly in long, complex sentences. However, they don’t inherently understand the rules for social language – such as tact and staying on topic — which allow them to engage in the appropriate back-and-forth conversations which are precursors to making friends and developing relationships.
Video Behavior Modeling is an Effective Tool for Teaching Social Skills
Individuals with HFA can learn social language skills when those skills are directly taught to them. Research studies conclude that one of the most effective strategies for teaching social language skills is video behavior modeling. In video behavior modeling, target behaviors are broken down into small component skills. For example, engaging in conversation involves the skills of maintaining eye contact with people in the conversation group and paying attention to what others are saying (joint attention). The skills of maintaining eye contact and paying joint attention to others are modeled in separate videos by a peer (peer modeling) or the student (self modeling). The student watches the skill demonstrations and then imitates the behaviors, individually and in conjunction with each other, until the skills seem familiar and easy to repeat.
In time, a student may be able to generalize the skill, meaning he/she may be able to move beyond using the skill in the specific practice setting to using it in new, unplanned situations. Generalization may or may not happen for individual students. Even if skills are generalized, the jury is still out on the question of whether ASD individuals ultimately learn to intrinsically understand social behaviors or simply perform them as they would a memorized script.
9th Planet Video Behavior Modeling Program – Adds Humor
There are several video modeling programs which can be used to teach social skills. One program, called 9th Planet, uses video modeling along with elements of humor to encourage sometimes reluctant ASD teenagers and young adults to actively engage in social skills lessons. The 9th Planet program uses a “stranger in a strange land” theme to demonstrate social skills in an entertaining way to spark student interest in the characters modeling the target behaviors. The videos feature a young man named Tad Shy who hails from the 9th Planet (hence the program name of 9th Planet). Tad is stuck on earth where social rules are different from the ones he used (or didn’t use) on the 9th Planet. He encounters social situations he doesn’t know how to manage and is coached by a talking, animated computer named Bob. The videos model a wide variety of social skills, from relatively simple skills such as eye contact to more complicated skills like recognizing false friends. One teaching series models social skills for students who are searching for jobs. Some of the job search topics include networking, working with a job search mentor and doing information interviews.
Learning By Doing
The learning in the program goes beyond video modeling and into learning by doing. Tad Shy, the central character, is played by a young man on the Spectrum who edits the videos and assists with script writing. Many of the videos feature young people on the Spectrum who play different characters in the videos. Learning plans include theatre-influenced activities such as role plays, conversation volleys and improvisation exercises in which students actively practice skills to reinforce the video learning. Students also work on projects to create their own social skills videos.
Locally Produced, Globally Sold
The 9th Planet videos and learning plans are produced by a family-owned company in Minnesota. Videos are shot at business locations throughout the Twin cities metropolitan area, including local libraries, independently-owned coffee shops, grocery stores, photography studios, candy stores, classic car shops and candy stores. Animation and animation voicing for the spaceship computer are created by one of the company producers.
The videos and learning plans are used in a growing number of secondary and post-secondary classrooms throughout the United States. They are also being sold in Australia, the U.K., Germany and Canada. This fall (2013), the company’s co-producer will teach program-based classes about the social skills involved in finding and keeping a job for the Autism Society of Minnesota.
Next Steps – Jobs and Tough Stuff Skills
9th Planet is now focusing on teaching the socially complicated skills which generally preoccupy transition-aged and young adult ASD learners. A skill set package about looking for jobs – Job Searching on the Spectrum – was released in Spring 2013. A follow-up skill set package about social skills used on the job is in the early phases of script writing and production. A single e-pub video and learning plan called Recognizing False Friends will soon be released in August 2013. Recognizing False Friends teaches some of the skills involved in discerning when a friend isn’t trustworthy and saying “no” to an untrustworthy friend when personal boundaries are crossed. The production team is also starting work on a series, requested by a local school, about dating and romantic relationships.
Bottom line — there’s a seemingly endless list of social language skills to be dissected and taught to teen and young adult ASD learners who struggle with communication and relationships. 9th Planet videos and learning plans use researched effective practices to teach those skills. Most importantly, the 9th Planet program is designed to make social learning a challenge but also fun – because if ASD students think social skill learning is only a matter of hard work, it won’t happen.